learn guitar scales

How to Train Cats to Use a Cat Door Or Ring a Bell to Be Let Inside

If you have an outdoor cat you may hope to learn how to train cats to use a cat door or how to ring a bell so that you realize they are ready to come in.

I realize that there are times when I let my cats outside that I may get busy and forget to check on them so I found a way for them to let me know that they are at the door all set to come inside. I live in an area that is too cold for a cat door (I have one going to the basement where the cat litter boxed are located) so I chose to find a way for them to signal me to open the door, something we wanted because of the extreme cold we at times go through here.

Here is a very simple way for training your cats to let you know when they want to be let inside.

Simply take a small bell, one that is loud enough for you to hear, and swing it from a string right outside the door. Make certain to show this to your cat numerous times and if you need to you can even add some catnip to the bell to appeal to your cats.

You can obtain a bell at any craft store for practically nothing. Using several small bells might even do better for you or your cat. Tie the bell or bells to a cord that hangs down low enough for your cat to reach easily and then also attach a catnip toy or use catnip spray to attract your cat.

When ever the cat rings the bell to come in, you will want to give them a cat treat to let them know that they have done something worth rewarding. If your cat doesn't take to the bell straight away, you may have to keep showing it to them to get them interested and sooner or later they will learn that you will come to the door to let them in when they ring the bell.

In the beginning, you might need to keep showing them the bell every time they go out or come in so that they begin to connect the bell with the door being opened for them. You might even want to begin with a bell inside the house for when they want to go outside and this will help them to learn more quickly that ringing the bell means that the door will be opened.

While I realize there will be times that you may not open the door just because you are not there or for any number of reasons, your cat will still start to connect the bell with the door being opened.

If you live someplace where you can put in a cat door, this is one more choice you can use to let your cat go in and out when ever they want to. This will also depend on what other animals you may have in the home. One more reason I choose not to have a cat door that leads outside, is I have a cat that can go outside but she is edgy and I have be there to baby sit when she goes out so that she doesn't get scared and take off.

Although you can purchase a cat door at any pet store, you can also just make one yourself if you are good at creating stuff. We put the cat door to our basement in ourselves, simply by cutting a small hole at the bottom of the door and putting a piece of plastic across it that they could easily walk through.

If you wish to put in a cat door that goes outside, make sure you know what size you need to have for you cat to be able to fit comfortably through the opening. While a cat that is used to going outside all the time will most likely figure out quickly how to make use of the cat door, you may also need to know how to train cats to use this new door as well.

This ought to be a fairly straightforward process. One of the ways you can train your cat to use this door is to keep it open and use a toy to tempt your cat to go through from one side to the other. It should only take a couple of times of doing this before your cat is aware that they can go in and out as they please.

Once they have gone in and out a couple of times you will want to show them how to use the door by themselves when it is closed and you can use the same process to do this. You may perhaps choose to use food to attract your cat to walk through the door and help them to push through the first few times but a lot of cats will take to this process pretty quickly if they really want to be able to get outside.

With persistence and affection you can learn how to train cats to do just about everything.

Source by Kimberly Aita


Fear

Fear

Of what am I afraid, you ask.
Of myself, I answer.
The self I have hidden deep down inside,
The one I'm afraid you will not like,
The one I sometimes do not like either.

I'm afraid that parts of this self
Will rise to the surface
And I will not be able to push them back down.
I will no longer be able to hide them
And maybe I'll lose some of what I have
My friends,
My loves,
My present lifestyle.

I feel like so many parts of me are fighting
For control of my being.
I feel torn apart, confused,
V wondering what I can safely let out,
And what will escape.
I wonder how I'll put myself back together,
Which pieces will stay, and
Which will be gone.

I do not know what will happen
And I'm afraid of the unknown.
It's so much safer just as I am,
But I know I must face myself, my fears,
If I'm to have any peace,
And I want peace.

Fear – that queasy feeling in the pit of your stomach. The feeling that makes the sweat start to flow. The feeling that constricts the blood vessels so that you can not catch your breath. The feeling that makes you think you are losing your voice. The feeling that keeps us from accomplishing many things, that keeps us from trying something new.

Fear is, and always has been, one of the greatest enemies of humankind. Fear of public speaking ranks higher than fear of death. When Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself," he was saying that the emotion of fear, rather than the reality of what we fear, is what causes us anxiety, stress, and unhappiness. When we develop the habit of courage and unshakable self-confidence, a whole new world of possibilities opens up for us.

When we have limited information, we tend to be tense and insecure about the outcome of our actions. Ignorance causes us to fear change, to fear the unknown and to avoid trying anything new or different. But the reverse is also true. The very act of gathering more and more information about a particular subject causes us to have more courage and confidence in that area. Imagine how free we would feel and what we could accomplish if we could live without fear.

The only way to effectively deal with fear is to confront it; To ask ourselves, what is the worst that can happen? Usually what we imagine is much worse than the actual result. It's ironic that some people are more fearful of public speaking than of driving in traffic. Yet, vastly more casualties and fatalities resulting from traffic accidents than public speaking. The courageous person is simply one who goes forward in spite of the fear. It is a funny fact, but when you confront your fears and move toward what you are afraid of, your fears diminish and your self-esteem and self-confidence increase.

You may remember Anna in the King and I. She was afraid of the King and so she sang a song about her fears and how she noticed that when she pretended she was not afraid and fooled others, she also felt less fearful.

As Brian Tracy says, "The habit of courage can be learned just as any other success skill is learned. To do so, we need to go to work systematically to diminish and eradicate our fears, while simultaneously building up the kind of courage that will Enable us to deal with the inevitable ups and downs of life unafraid. "

Fear is a natural survival mechanism. It can motivate us, or stop us in our tracks. In situations that pose a threat to life and limb, fear motivates us to be careful. However, fear is a problem when it interferees with our goals and achievements.

At Toastmasters fear is what precedes our participation in Table Topics, or making a speech. We may be afraid of making a fool of ourselves in front of others. We may have been teased or taunted as children. Whatever the reason for our fear, one of the reasons we come to Toastmasters is to learn to overcome some of these fears about public speaking and the only way to do this is to actually participate in the activities of the evening meeting. For those who are just starting, the job of "Ah counter" or "Timer" may be an appropriate job. The job description can easily be read from the back of the agenda if necessary, sparing the participant the trouble of actually having to remember the duties, thus easing a little of the tension. For those who are a little more adventurous, participating in the Table Topics, giving the word of the week, or telling a joke or story may be the next step.

I decided to join to help me get over my fear of giving a speech to a large group of people. I've been giving training workshops for a number of years, but workshops are much different than speeches. In a workshop you have a lot more time to do things, you are in a discussion with others, and you can back track if necessary. With a speech, you have to have it all in the right order right from the beginning. Working through the 10 references for your Competent Toastmaster certification can give you the direction and confidence you need to move ahead.

Once you become more comfortable with the people around you, you realize that they are only there to help you, to define you. Then it is time to take the next step and confront your fears by giving your first speech – your Ice Breaker. This will help you gain confidence to move on through the rest of your speeches. Remember, the more you learn, the easier it is to face your fears.

Do not be afraid to shine.
This world needs what you have to give.
Open up the areas of your being;
Expose them to yourself – to others.
You are valuable.
You are unique.
You have much to give.
Do not be afraid to give it.

As we risk ourselves, we grow.
Each new experience is a risk.
We can try, and maybe fail,
And, as a result, grow–
Or hold back and stagnate.

You have the potential
To be anything you want.
You are free to choose.
You are limited only by your fears.
Let your dreams take over.
Fly with the eagles.
Soar into life.
The world is waiting for you.

Copyright March 1987
Fran Watson

Source by Fran Watson


Have Some Fun Making a Guitar Hero Video!

We all love the idea of ​​playing Guitar Hero and pretending to be a rock star, so what about the idea of ​​taking it to the next level? Real rock stars have plenty of videos documenting their performance, and now Guitar Hero players are following around. There are lots of great videos out there that will be evident as soon as you go looking, and if you are interested in making one yourself, there are a lot of things to keep in mind. Whether you are creating a playing aid that will help other players or you just want to goof around and have fun, consider the three types of Guitar Hero video and what to do with them.

1.Audio and Visual of the Game Itself

When you look at this video, you will find yourself looking at an interface that you are very familiar with. You'll hear the music as it is being played and you'll see the symbols scrolling past the way that they are meant to. Making this kind of video is the most direct way to let others practice their own skills. While there is a lot that goes into playing Guitar Hero competently, just taking the time to get to know the songs and the visuals that go into it, all without anything else getting in the way, can be very helpful. This may be one way that you choose to help your community.

2.Audio and Video of You

This can be one of the funnest and most goofy ways to enjoy the game. Set up the camera, set up your game and let go! There are lots of people out there who have turned what was a simple game into a fun performance, and you'll find that this is a great way to have a good time. When you set up the camera, of course you are going to post the most difficult song that you can play. Think about how much fun you can have showing off your awesome Guitar Hero skills. Lots of fans of the game have won themselves some impressive followings by doing just this.

3.Combination

There are a couple of ways to get yourself and the video into the shot at the same time. You can set the camera back away from the television and at an angle, or you can have two different videos going at the same time. If you decide to do the second option, you only have to put the visual from one of the cameras into a small square off to one side. This is a very handy way to make a tutorial on how to play a song or just to make sure that your viewers know exactly how awesome you are. Take some time and really consider what your options are going to be.

What kind of Guitar Hero video are you interested in making? You'll find that there are lots of videos out there, so take some time and really figure out what your options are going to be and what you most want to show off!

Source by Gil Tagmore


What Does It Mean If He Says You're Special to Him? Learn the True Meaning Behind These Words

A Man can leave you in a dilemma when he says something like “you are special”. While it is really nice of him to say that, you can interpret it in a thousand different ways. So here is what this could mean

That now you are exclusive

When a man says that you are special he could mean that now you are an exclusive couple. If you have been casually dating for a while then this could indicate that he wants to be with you and would like to see how the relationship progresses.

That he sees you as a special someone

When he says you are special he could also be trying to tell you that finally he has found the special someone that he has been looking for. Men tend to be a little secretive about their feelings so look out for signs that spell commitment.

That he can see you in his future

When a man says you are special then he could also mean that he can see you in his future. You have been able to find a special place in his life and he just wants to keep you posted on the way he feels.

That he is falling for you but doesn't want to confess that just yet

Sometimes a man tells a woman that she is special when he begins to feel that he has fallen in love with her. He just doesn't want to confess that to her and also to himself and hence says that she is a special person.

That he doesn't want to rush the relationship

Often saying that you are special could indicate that your man wants to take things slow. If he says that you are special for him and nothing more then he might be feeling that things are progressing too fast in the relationship and it's time to slow down.

That you are special but not special enough

If he says that you are special but doesn't demonstrate any emotion that makes you feel special then that means that he does find you special but it is for the moment. He doesn't see you as the final special someone in his life.

That your relationship status is going to change

Lastly, when a guy says that you are special it means that things are going to change between the two of you. Either the relationship is going to become more serious and intense or is an indication that things need to cool off for a bit. Either ways both will be complemented with additional behavior which you need to read and understand.

Source by Krista Hiles


Deep Throat Techniques - 7 Practical Steps To Learn How To Deep Throat

Mastering different deep throat techniques will certainly get you on your way to some sexy deep throat love. And with the instruction you can create an incredibly erotic visual and a heightened sense of pleasure on the underside of your partners shaft.

But if you've only ever seen images of a woman's throat expanding and contracting as a penis bulges in and out. Then it's only natural to be thinking, what's really in this for me other than a strong throat constitution and avoiding the taste of semen?

Whilst it's definitely not for all women, if you love to be in control, have a sense for adventure and already thoroughly enjoy giving head, chances are with the right techniques you might just get a kick out of performing it.

Starting out, deep throat love can appear a daunting task but if you want to learn to deep throat you must first acknowledge that it's a process that is practiced in stages. You're not going to achieve the results either of you desire with you closing your eyes and hoping for the best and him being over eager, thrusting away with you choking on the other end. No one wants deep throat choke, so take the time to learn the proper deep throat techniques that will make performing it a lot easier to swallow.

Stage 1 – Positioning

Your correct positioning is one of the most important techniques, especially when starting out. The best way to learn is with him lying on his back with you on your side dictating when and how far you can comfortably go. Only when you have become totally accustomed to the sensation of deep throat and can control your body's natural reflexes, should you consider trying a more submissive position such as lying on your back with your head hanging off the back of the bed. (irrumatio)

Stage 2 – Lubrication

There will definitely be no deep throat love if your mouth and throat are totally dry. So it's very important to acquire the right deep throat techniques to ensure your mouth is well lubricated in assisting his penis sliding in to your throat. Regular sucking can tend to dry your mouth out after a while but if you press his penis as far back in to your mouth as you possibly can and hold it there for a few seconds, the back of your throat will begin to lubricate with thick saliva. Continue to do this a few times. Suck then hold, take a breath, then suck and hold again. This is known as the deep throat suck and with persistence, gradually your mouth will become a super slippery, deep throat friendly environment.

Stage 3 – Open Wide

It goes without saying that in order to perform any sort of sexy deep throat you are going to have to open your mouth really wide, but there is even a savvy deep throat technique for this. You may have noticed during fellatio the back of your throat prevents the penis from going any further. In order to get passed this, the trick to successful deep throat is opening your mouth wide enough (like a yawn) and titling your head back far enough to allow the penis to slip into your throat. This is easier said than done and will take some practice. Essentially you will need to try to create one long straight line between your mouth and throat. If you don't get this straight line with your head tilted back, his penis will get stuck at the back of your mouth and won't be able to move down your throat.

Stage 4 – Prepare For The Gag Reflex

Once you have practiced the head tilt, you should now be ready to take him in your mouth. As he enters, a good technique is to flatten the back of your tongue to help the muscles in your throat open.

At this point you should also prepare for the gag reflex. Unfortunately, there is no avoiding this, so when it occurs, try to be calm, pause, and hold him there as long as possible. Gagging is uncomfortable and can take a while to get used to but if you can repeat this step as many times as you can, eventually you should be able to suppress this feeling and gradually be able to take him in further. A good trick to help with this is to also try breathing out while taking him in to help stop the gagging reflex.

Stage 5 – Persistence

When you take it upon yourself to learn to deep throat, you must be prepared to be persistent. So when you get to the point where his penis hits the beginning of your throat it will be normal to feel a little resistance. In this case, you will need to flatten your tongue to open the back of your throat and create the flat straight line again. A little push from your partner is another deep throat technique that can help, as long as you're aware it's coming. You can also try to pull his penis in further using your tongue as a lever, to draw it in then push it back out. With a little persistence you should be able to take his penis in deeper to the point where you can take the entire length of it over your tongue and down in to your deep, deep throat.

When you have gotten this far just remember you don't need to hold him in your throat for too long. Good deep throat techniques include practicing comfortably bringing him in and then letting him out, giving yourself a break when you need it. Deep throat does not have to mean leaving his penis in your throat.

Stage 6 – Breathing

No one wants a deep throat choke so always remember to breathe! It may sound obvious but it's actually very easy to get lost in the process and tighten up as a result of a large foreign object pushing into your throat. It's important to relax and take your time and learn to maintain a normal breathing level.

Stage 7 – Practice

Perfecting these techniques will take practice and perseverance. Follow the stages slowly and at your own pace to help you progress to where you can comfortably and confidently move on to the next stage. With practice your movements will become smoother and faster.

On a final note, if you get through all the stages you will want to know if he his planning or hoping to ejaculate down your throat. Some women do not like the taste of semen and deep throating gets around this. However having a man ejaculate directly down your throat in a restrictive position may be confronting and not desirable to some women. It is not absolutely necessary for you to have to deep throat swallow so discuss your partners intentions beforehand to ensure good, mutual happy deep throating!

Source by Jane L


Things to Consider After the Purchase of an Online Blues Guitar Course

Due to the modern technology available to us today, it is not as challenging to learn to play some instrument as it was the case before the invention of the Internet. Instead of searching for a decent teacher, which is what you had to do in the past, you can just log into the worldwide web and find an online course, which can offer you almost as much guidance (if not more, in some cases) As any live teacher. Even when you decide to master something so specific as blues guitar, you can find courses catering to that desire. However, not all the courses claiming to lead you to mastery can deliver upon that promise.

I have purchased several courses claiming to teach anyone how to play guitar like a pro no matter if you are a beginner or an advanced musician. My goal was to primarily learn blues guitar, so I was looking for courses offering at least some blues guitar lessons. Yet, even when I purchased highly recommended courses I experienced disappointment.

Here are few things to look at when you buy your online guitar course. First, make sure that you know how long the money back guarantee. Make a note in your calendar and do not postpone reviewing the course material. Even if you like the first two or three lessons, and even if the course is very extensive, meaning that it has hundred or even several hundred lessons, make sure you go over them. You do not have to listen to all of them. That would be virtually impossible. What you want to find out is that the course will stay interesting for you in the long run. The reason I am recommending that is because I purchased a course, which looked really great.

However, once I went over all the lessons I realized that they are pretty much the same and that although there was some progress from lesson 5 to lesson 69, for example, it was minimal. Also, I could not imagine learning in the same way for a year or longer. In other words, the material would eventually become super boring for me (and possibly for you as well). The lessons should be moving you forward and use the same structure, but they should keep you interested in the material all the time and there should be new techniques how to learn. This is my opinion only, but I believe it resonates with many people.

Another thing to focus on are the technical aspects. What do I mean? Well, for instance, I downloaded one of the courses into my computer. It was in the PDF format and the navigation through the pages was so slow that I eventually became completely frustrated with it and had to return it. In general, I am quite a patient person, but that was too much. When you buy a course to learn some skill, you do not want to be waiting around and waste your time on waiting for the thing to load. In other words, make sure that when you buy your course, you can navigate through it swiftly and you can also find what you are looking for without getting your hair gray.

This leads me to another point. If you want to learn lets say blues guitar and you buy a course that promises to contain blues guitar lessons (since there are not many pure blues guitar courses available), make sure you can find them easily and estimate them value for you. There is no point learning dozens of licks from all other styles if your goal is learning blues music. I mean, it can not hurt you, but it is better to learn only what is the most interesting to you and not waste your time on something you might never use.

Finally, you are the customer and if you are not happy with what you bought, just return the product. Do not postpone this decision. Once you find out you will most likely not use the course, return it. Why ditch your hard earned cash? You have usually anywhere from 30-60 days for return and that is plenty of time to find out if the product offers what it promised and if there is something you can benefit from. Fortunately, when you do not like an online course you purchased, you can easily return it; As for most digital products it is only a matter of a few clicks with you mouse.

Source by Vladimir Dolezal


Why To Outsource Your Photo Editing Services

Businesses all over the world, regardless their sectors and industries have the requirement of flawlessly edited images. With the fast evolving digital age, the requirements and expectations from image editing services are also hiking up. Whether we talk about the basic photography skills or involve tools like Adobe Photoshop, Photo retouch, Image masking, Color correction and etc. we always want the quality of our images to perfectly to retain the quality of our brand and business.

Photo editing that includes quality not only needs the expert touch and in-depth knowledge of the photo editing software but also demands the investment of a lot of time.

Outsourcing these digital photos to edit is a key which thousands of businesses across the globe have now started to choose as a solution in order to get edited photos that proudly represents their business and helps them to stand out. By outsourcing the photos to photo editing services, they not only save a vast amount of time for themselves, but also hand over the task to the experts who are well aware of the kind of image editing service the business may need.

One may question the credentials of the service providers whom they will trust with the key presentation of their business. While selecting a professional photo editing company, one should definitely visit their website to find out the services this company offer, their experience in the domain, the reason behind their exclusivity and their work portfolio. While doing this research, checking the credentials and credibility is a necessity.

What if you want to check their quality of work before you hand them over the project? Simple, provide sample images initially. Preferably, any photo editing service provider who prioritizes their clients demand should offer to validate their proficiency by retouching sample images. Hence, you can send them a few sample images that need to be edited in order to check the quality of work of the photo editing company.

Now comes the real deal, what about the time that you are struggling to save? If the sample images are retouched and delivered in your desired manner and time respectively, and you are satisfied with their service, you can further talk to them and specify requirements for a larger volume of work in detail. This specific time period, also known as the Turnaround Time (TAT), needs to be discussed so that they know your requirements when the volume of images to be edited increases.

So once, you know that they have secured your trust to meet your demands on the quality and time that you have been looking for, you can outsource your images to be edited by these companies without having to worry.

Source by Nayan Chowdhury


5 Obesity Advantages - How is Obesity a Good Thing?

Is obesity a good thing and how is obesity a good thing? It may sound odd and contrary to general beliefs but there are some obesity advantages out there. A few of these can't be met while at normal weight or even overweight. Let's find out what these five obesity advantages are.

1) Certain types of work are only catered to the obese:

There are jobs where an obese individual is suited for more than a normal weight person or someone who's just overweight. An example of this could be an acting job. Say there's a story with a character who's obese playing a big part. The only person who'll probably fill the role of that character is… someone who's obese.

2) Stronger Bones/Muscles:

This can be considered as one of the advantages of obesity. The reason being that any attempt at exercising, even a casual walk can contribute to this. Certain gym activities such as lifting weights also help with obese people having strong bones and muscles.

3) More warmth is possible:

This is due to the excessive body fat alleviating heat loss from an obese person's body into the air especially in cold environments. The fat has a tendency to keep some blood from getting closest to the skin where it can lose heat rapidly. This is why excessive clothing is worn, to trap body heat for constant warmth. As an extension to point 2 above, putting on more muscle provides a similar benefit where it can be a heat source while exercising and provide great insulation while resting.

4) Size… does it matter?

This seems to be more of a feature than one of the advantages of obesity but there are some people who are proud of their hugeness and put it to some use. That makes it an advantage for them.

5) Even the obese can lose weight:

The most important when it comes to obesity advantages is that the weight can be lost. It's more important than all the previous advantages listed combined. Even overriding the disadvantages of obesity but only if this losing weight obesity advantage is consistently applied. Obesity mostly results from consuming more calories than required consistently. The excessive weight can be lost over a period of time by frequently burning more calories through exercise while not consuming more calories than your body needs.

Obviously if you aren't obese and are at normal weight its way more beneficial health wise to keep yourself that way. Exercise and healthy eating are still essential for maintaining a healthy body. Of all the obesity advantages listed, number 5 is the most important. If you don't bring your weight down significantly, many health dangers resulting from obesity will set in sooner or later.

Source by Sivadi Kisho


The Fundamentals of Asphalt Shingles

Shingles come in numerous constructions, designs, colors, and sizes. They are specifically manufactured for sloping roof systems of at least a 4:12 pitch (4 inch vertical rise over a 12 inch horizontal run), and can be found in a variety of materials. The most common include asphalt, clay or concrete tile, slate, wood, and metal.

Although there is a generous selection of roof shingles to choose from, for more than a century, asphalt (bitumen) roof shingles have proven to be the most prominent and popular choice to this day. Not only are they cost-effective and easy to install, they are durable, long-lasting, and require little maintenance. They also come in countless colors and styles, making it simple to achieve a customized look on a budget.

Continue reading to learn the basic facts about asphalt roof shingles, and why they are a fantastic choice for sloped roofs.

Construction

The two most common types of construction for bitumen shingles are fiberglass and organic mat-based shingles. Both may have an asphalt saturated organic substrate made from cellulose fibers (such as wood or paper), or they can have a fiberglass-based substrate. Fiberglass shingles are highly durable, lightweight, and thin. They also have longer warranties and higher fire ratings in comparison to alternative organic materials. Organic mat-based shingles have 40% more bitumen content than fiberglass versions, which makes them thicker and heavier. They are also a bit more expensive, but they are malleable, strong, and can withstand more damage overtime.

Design Options

The most common design options are 3-tab strip shingle and laminated dimensional shingle. The 3-tab version has cutouts or tabs along the bottom edge, giving it the appearance of 3 shingles instead of one. It is the most common and cost-effective shingle design option. The laminated dimensional shingle is a more textured and architectural approach. It is a premium product with multiple layers of bitumen laminated tabs, giving it a layered and dimensional look.

Color Options

Asphalt shingles come in a variety of color families. Any color or hue can be matched to a property with ease since the collection of colors has expanded overtime. Roofing companies generally retain innovative technology that allows property owners to choose colors more accurately. This allows clients to experiment with different colors in order to find the perfect one.

Environmentally-Friendly Options

With increasing innovations in the roofing industry, homeowners can now opt for an eco-friendly approach to shingle installation. There is a new product of asphalt shingle that uses cool-roof technology, which reduces the amount of heat shingles absorb from the sun. This greener option is cost-effective since it decreases the amount of AC you use in the summer!

Roof Repair and Maintenance

Although durable, bitumen shingles are still prone to damage. But as long as your roof system is properly ventilated at all times and inspected by a professional company on an annual basis, you can expect great performance and value from them.

Source by Sarahbeth Kluzinski